Honey is a popular natural sweetener and has been used for thousands of years for its medicinal properties. But did you know that honey is one of the few foods that never spoils? That’s right, honey can last for thousands of years and still be edible!
So, what is the science behind honey’s long shelf life? The answer lies in the unique properties of honey.
Honey is a supersaturated solution, meaning it contains more sugar than it can dissolve. The sugar in honey creates a low-water activity environment, which makes it difficult for bacteria to grow. Bacteria need water to survive, and without it, they can’t thrive in honey.
In addition, honey contains an enzyme called glucose oxidase. When honey is produced, bees add glucose oxidase to it. This enzyme breaks down glucose into hydrogen peroxide and gluconic acid. Hydrogen peroxide is a natural disinfectant that kills bacteria and other microbes, while gluconic acid is an organic acid that lowers the pH of honey, making it acidic and inhospitable to bacteria.
Another factor contributing to honey’s long shelf life is its high sugar content. Honey is made up of approximately 82% of sugars, including glucose and fructose. These sugars are hygroscopic, meaning they absorb moisture from the air. When honey absorbs moisture, it lowers the water activity even further, making it even more difficult for bacteria to grow.
Finally, honey is stored in airtight containers by bees, which protects it from external factors such as air, light, and moisture. This helps preserve honey’s unique properties and keeps it from spoiling.
In summary, honey’s long shelf life can be attributed to its supersaturated solution, low water activity, glucose oxidase enzyme, high sugar content, and airtight storage. So, the next time you enjoy a spoonful of honey in your tea or drizzle it over your pancakes, remember that you’re consuming food with a fascinating and unique science behind it.